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０１ 黒潮圏科学＝Kuroshio Science 1（2007）- >
|タイトル: ||Socio-Economic Conditions, the Status of Fisheries and Agriculture and the Adaptive Capacities of Households and Communities in San Miguel Island, Albay, Philippines in the Kuroshio Sphere of Influence|
|著者: ||Nieves, Plutomeo M.|
Pelea, Ninfa R.
Bradecina, Raul G.
Pereyra, Myrna A.
Rivero, Maria Corazon P.
|キーワード: ||adaptive capacities|
status of fisheries and agriculture
|雑誌名: ||黒潮圏科学 = Kuroshio Science|
|発行日: ||25-Mar-2009 |
|抄録: ||A study designed to evaluate the socio-economic conditions, the status of the fisheries and agriculture and the adaptive capacities of households and communities in the Kuroshio sphere of influence was carried out in 2007 from a random sample of 1,035 household’s respondents in San Miguel Island, Philippines. Participatory resource assessment (PRA) methods and multi-stakeholders processes (MSP) tools were used in data collection from a cross-section of all sectors in the community.
Key findings showed that the island economy depends largely on agriculture (44%) and fisheries (28%). Forty-six percent (46%) of the population are actively earning while about 68% of wives are unemployed, some 17% are earning an average of Php. 6,200 per annum from mat making. The per capita income distribution corresponds to 79% poverty incidence with 66% of the surveyed population falling below the food threshold. Using the international standard of a dollar a day per capita, 86% of the population earns less than a dollar a day. The mean household size is 5.7 with a relatively higher dependency ratio of 60% and the majority of the population have only reached an elementary level of education.
In the fisheries sector, 84% are fulltime, 57% own boats that are either motorized (43%) or nonmotorized (57%) and the remaining 43% are renter-borrowers. Fishing is affected by southwest (November to March) and northeast monsoons (June to October) and is generally good from April to May. Fishing is characterized by low catch per unit effort. A similar observation was reported by the NSCB (2005), Soliman et al. (1995 and 1999), and Soliman et al. (1999). As a counter-measure, a Marine Fishery Reserve (MFR) was established in 1997 with reports of successes and failures, lessons learned and controversy as well.
The agricultural sector is characterized by traditional farming methods in small land holdings (1.38 ha) with an average annual income of PhP 19,800, planting primarily root crops and crops with short farming cycles as it lessens the risk of potential damage caused by climatic variability.
As regards adaptive capacity, it should be noted that 20-22 typhoons enter the Philippines jurisdiction annually, mostly from the Pacific where the Kuroshio Current originates. As such, the people have developed adaptive measures particularly those related to life preservation and avoidance of the loss of life and property. It should be stressed therefore that the influence of the Kuroshio Current should never be underestimated. The fact is, gains from years of struggle to reduce problems associated with poverty can be wiped-out be single extreme events. Adaptive capacity and coping mechanisms are also influenced by complications arising from poverty, poor governance, environmental degradation and uncontrolled population growth. Although both the high income and low-income groups are at risk, the latter will suffer most. Therefore, the government should consider long-term solutions that offer capacity-building and social preparations, income generating opportunities, capital and other support services which are ecologically sustainable and will permit an acceptable level of well-being for all the people particularly those in the vulnerable sectors.|
|出現コレクション:||０１ 黒潮圏科学＝Kuroshio Science 1（2007）-|